Sunday, May 17, 2020

Exploring the Possibility of Updating the Cosmological...

Exploring the Possibility of Updating the Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God The term cosmological comes from the Greek language, meaning ‘world’ or ‘universe.’ The argument is based on facts about the world. The topic of cosmology refers to the study of the universe. The cosmological argument begins with a general claim about the physical universe e.g. that some events have causes and that there must be a supernatural agent to somehow explain this fact. The argument seems to say that there cannot be an infinite series of causes, they have to stop somewhere. One scholar who supports this idea is St. Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas invented the ‘five ways’ by which he tried to demonstrate†¦show more content†¦Although, we also have no reason to believe that they are false. The five ways also asks how can the cosmological argument avoid contradicting itself. For example, if nothing causes itself how can there be a first cause, which does not require a cause other than itself. The cosmological argument can work on the assumption that the cause of existing things is not a thing, in which case the above contradiction would disappear. Leibniz put forward the cosmological argument. He argues that the ‘great principle’ of this argument is that â€Å"nothing takes place without a sufficient reason.†[2] Leibniz went onto formulate a version of the cosmological argument similar to, but also different from that of Aquinas. In place of Aquinas’ idea that every event has a cause, Leibniz observed that every event must have a sufficient reason for its existence, since nothing happens without a reason. But everything can also be explained with reference to something else within the world. Therefore the reason why there is something at all rather than nothing must come from outside the world. For a sufficient reason to account for such things there must be a being, which is able to create existence. Such a being must exist of itself because there is something rather than nothing. Therefore a necessary being exists, which we call god. Copleston formulated three

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay The Logic of Mercantilism - 723 Words

Explain the Logic of Mercantilism and Why it is Generally Viewed as a Deficient Theory Gretchen Serrao Nova Southeastern University Explain the Logic of Mercantilism and Why it is Generally Viewed as a Deficient Theory Mercantilism was an economic system that developed in Europe between the 16th and 18th century during the period of the new monarchies. This economic philosophy is based on the belief that a nation’s wealth depends on accumulated treasure, usually precious metals such as gold and silver, and to increase wealth, government policies should promote exports and discourage imports. Adam Smith, an eighteenth-century Scots professor of moral philosophy who influenced the founding fathers of†¦show more content†¦According to Coleman (1980), â€Å"Smith believed that the natural efforts of every individual to better his own condition when allied to liberty would motivate the ‘invisible hand’ and thus create wealth and prosperity† (p. 775). After a period of time, many people began to revolt against the idea of mercantilism and stressed the need for free trade. The continu ed pressure resulted in the implementation of laissez faire economics in the nineteenth century. Mercantilism aided the monarch and the merchant-capitalists to plan and govern the economic life to secure monopoly gains. Pecquet (2003) suggested that, â€Å"The king captured monopoly revenues in the form of customs duties imposed on the tobacco trade, and English merchants gained exclusive access to most of the world tobacco crop† (p. 467). As a consequence, domestic market was less competitive, legal monopolies drove up prices, consumers were hurt, the purchase power declined, and the further development of economy was affected. All of these reasons support the fact that mercantilism was a deficient theory because its policies benefited only one party and harm the other, and there was no possibility of economics being used to maximize the commonwealth, or common good. References Pecquet, G. M. (2003). British mercantilism and cropShow MoreRelatedLiberalism, Mercantilism, Structuralism And Constructivism1422 Words   |  6 PagesWhen approaching political economics, there are a variety of places and perspectives one may begin from, the most common of which being identifiable as Liberalism, Mercantilism, Structuralism and Constructivism. Each of these political ideologies represent the culmination of works from many famous theorists and intellectuals, all of which help us to better understand how certain economies have the possibility of functioning in different situations. Focuses range from the power of the individual toRead MoreThe Consequences Of Government Restrictions On Free Trade1698 Words   |  7 Pagesdominated by mercantilism, an economic system guided in large part by heavy government intervention in order to maximize their nations’ balance of trade. This essay thus will analyze Smith’s critique of mercantilism, discuss the uninten ded and harmful consequences of government restrictions on free trade, and outline the theoretical foundations of Smith’s alternative, enlightened self-interest. In Book IV of The Wealth of Nations, Smith begins by deconstructing the central flaw of mercantilism, namelyRead MoreDiscuss Smith s Ideas On The Division Of Labour1073 Words   |  5 Pagesof what is naturally occurring. In doing this he finds that what should be and what can be are profoundly interlinked. This revolutionary thinking went against mercantilism, which was the dominant approach of the time period. 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He saw the damage that overweening government intervention wasRead MoreMax Weber And The False Consciousness Of Karl Marx1232 Words   |  5 Pagesprecise and qualitative, relied on long term cost benefit analysis, and lost sight of the original intent of the businesses and government and bureaucracy. The hyper-rationalization of the world prompted the shift from Mercantilism to Capitalism. The transition from Mercantilism to Capitalism facilitated the creation of false consciousness as it gave people agency over their own lives without helping them analyze the structural factors in a society.. On the surface, the capitalism empowered workers:Read MoreNewtons Influences Of Isaac Newton And John Locke And The Scientific Revolution763 Words   |  4 PagesThe Enlightenment was a period of time during the second half of the 18th century of new concepts and ideas aimed to advance European society by using rational thinking and logic. 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The economic system of mercantilism effect revolutionary behavior in the colonies by controlling all economic activities to strengthen national power. Cromwell adopted the policy of mercantilism because of the English Civil War of 1640s sharply reduced funding flow to the colonies. Oliver Cromwell’s 1651 victory over the monarchy greatly influenced the colonies. It also created new global empire. Colonies were designed to provide for mother country. Mercantilism helped by providing silver andRead MoreThe Rise Of Free Trade1243 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction: Free Trade: The Rise of Free Trade: According to Adam Smith’s 1776 Wealth of Nations, which other economic historians like, McCulLoch (1825) , Blaugh (1978) and Heckscher (1994), have replicated, Mercantilism was a dominant economic theory prevalent across Europe throughout the 17th to the 18th century with limited empirical evidence (Benjamin Hav Mitra-Kahn, 2011). The theoretical contrasts between researchers throughout the mercantilist age originate from the difference in howRead MoreThe J Curve1412 Words   |  6 Pagesalso dealt with difficulties in government and the economy. The colonists were always facing harsh taxes and laws. The colonists went through something called Mercantilism, which was an economic doctrine, and not free trade. The trade was mainly between the colonists and England and what each required from the other. Through Mercantilism the Board of Trade was established in 1696 to regulate trade and review the laws made by the colonists. The navigation acts and the vice-admiralty court s enforced

Public Speaking Self Reflection free essay sample

By reviewing the presentation and accumulating the thoughts of those involved will improve future productions. Introduction The intro to this presentation should catch the attention of any doctor who knows about time management. Gaining attention and interest early was a goal in this presentation. The topic to save time and view radiology films from home was clear, and informative. An overview was not given of what would be covered instead the speech flowed into the step by step to view the images from home. Body The body of this presentation logically flowed step by step, using Powering to liver messages clearly and so that the audience could follow along more easily. No misinterpretation was felt regarding the use of language spoken, and the body was delivered well. The steps were clear and concise. Delivery When viewing the presentation again, it was rushed from start to finish. The time factor disabled the use of more information being shared. We will write a custom essay sample on Public Speaking Self Reflection or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page A well defined topic would have solved this problem. Watch out for eye contact, hand gestures, and bouncing around, these were noticed and portrayed poor body language. There were not any pauses due to time constraint. There were times that there could have been a pause to prove a point, or to allow the audience to ask a question or catch up to the speaker. Language The language used was appropriate. Due to the recording device used the audience could not hear clearly. Future presentation must have a better sound system. Audience and Topic The message was adapted for the appropriate audience. One of the biggest topics in any clinic is how to save time in a day. This is one suggestion for doing Just that.Any doctor looking to save time would view this two minute presentation to allow them a ewe extra minutes each day. Visual Aids Step by step instructions were used via Powering, on how to view Patient Images from home. The slides allowed the audience to view the steps clearly and efficiently. Many times in this presentation the visual aids allowed the speaker a chance to look away from the audience. A quick glance is fine but there is no reason to read the slide. Conclusion The end of the presentation was as rushed as the beginning and body. The reinforcement of how this would save time in the day, allowing more time with tenants, was preparation to the end of the speech. There was not a vivid ending Just more of the same Power Point presentation. A stronger conclusion would have helped close the presentation with confidence. Overall Evaluation The presentation was good throughout. There could have been a better sound system to make the presentation more appealing. The requirement was met for the assignment. To respect attention to detail, the time limit was followed closely. A general comment stated, was to wait a second or two prior to speaking to allow equipment to work so as not to cut off the beginning. There was clear purpose and overall the outcome was quite good. By reviewing the important parts of a presentation, introduction, body, conclusion, delivery, language, audience and topic, visual aids, and overall evaluation, the giver of the speech can use the information provided to improve upon them self. Overcoming the need to think of oneself as right and allowing outside perspective enables the speech presenter the ability to become a remarkable speaker, in everyones eyes.

Monday, April 20, 2020

SHARP in the Military Work Force free essay sample

Women have been sexually harassed and assaulted in the work force for years, and for many years, the US Army has been dealing with this enormous and overwhelming issue, through the help of their agency known as the Equal Opportunity Program (EOP). In the US Army regulation 600-20, Army Chief of Staff, General Raymond T Odierno, States the purpose, â€Å"This regulation prescribes the policies and responsibilities of command, which include the Well-being of the force, military discipline, and conduct, the Army Equal Opportunity (EO) Program, and the Army Sexual Assault Victim Program. â€Å" For a long time, the Army’s EOP Equal Opportunity Program had been involved in taking care of the issues of Sexual harassment in the work force. Now the Army has instituted the SHARP Program; the Sexual Harassment / Assault Recovery and Prevention program. My research begins to ask the question; why is this program now separate from the Equal Opportunity Program, and how the Army came to the conclusion that it need to be separate from the EOP? Will it help decrease the enormous problem of sexual harassment the Army is currently undergoing? What is the current severity of the issue? I will begin my research, by explaining the Equal Opportunity Program, then provide insightful information of the SHARP program, and conclude with my findings. We will write a custom essay sample on SHARP in the Military Work Force or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page To understand How the SHARP program came about I need to know, what was the US Army policy on Equal Opportunity, I found out that according to Army Regulation 600-20, signed by US Army Chief of Staff, Raymond T. Odierno states, â€Å"The U. S. Army will provide EO and fair treatment for military personnel and Family members without regard to race, color, gender, religion, national origin, and provide an environment free of unlawful discrimination and offensive behavior. † Reading through this regulation, I was able to understand the responsibilities of every commander, and how this was their charge to make sure that every soldier regardless of their race, color, gender, religion, or national origin, would abide by the policies, standards, and disciplines. How does this policy affect the soldiers, and does it applies both on and off post, during duty and non-duty hours? How does this affect the morale of all soldiers and their work environment? Well it does. The US Army has written extensively on just about every issue it has dealt with since the past, so why all these problems? Why was there a need to separate the sexual harassment program the Equal Opportunity had in place? And why now call it SHARP? In an article in the USA Today, March 2008, Pauline Jelinek from the Associated Press stated â€Å"One-third of women in the military and 6 percent of men said they were sexually harassed, according to the latest Pentagon survey on the issue. † The one third percentiles is a very high statistical number; it is scary to imagine this enormous threat to female soldiers, and the six percent of the males were sexually harassed. Where do these numbers for this study come from? Well according to the Associated Press, Pauline Jelinek, â€Å"The figure for women was worse than the previous finding several years ago, but better than a similar survey taken in 1995, the Defense Department said in a report Friday. The Defense Manpower Data Center said it compiled the data from a survey of 24,000 people in 2006. † I have been in the US Army for twenty two years, and I have seen dramatically changes the Army has been going through, and in this particular case the Army has always had to deal with this enormous issue, now more than ever they need to do something about the severity and gravity of this current situation. It has always been identified as an issue of the lower enlisted and lower officer ranks, and for a long time, the higher officers kept preaching to the choir. The Generals were always coming up with ways to end this issue, and many times they were really not doing much about the cause. So I find myself asking now more than ever, how are we going to deal with this issue realistically? With all the current scandals at the highest levels how can the subordinates feel they were being protected, and the US Army has their best interest at hand? Currently we have the national director of the CIA Ret. General Petreaus, under current investigation for a national security scandal and an admitted affair. I would like to know how many soldiers under his command, during his entire service to the Army has he punished, and kicked soldiers out the Army for sexual harassment or committing adultery? Can the Army explain the lack of enforcing standards? Rather they have established a double standard. Now you have Col James H. Johnson III, who was recently convicted of this related issue. In a recent article in the Stars and Stripes, June 14, 2012, Nancy Montgomery wrote KAISERSLAUTERN, Germany — Col. James Johnson, convicted of fraud, bigamy, and conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman, was sentenced Thursday to a reprimand and a $300,000 fine. † This Officer was in charge for the morale, welfare and protection of more than 20,000 soldiers under his command during the time of war. How can the Army put trust in these high ranking officials? The Army currently has another case pending, in a recent article in the Army Times, Associated Press, Michael Biesecker, â€Å"FORT BRAGG, N. C. — Defense lawyers representing an Army general facing sexual misconduct charges aimed Thursday to paint his primary accuser as a liar prone to jealousy and emotional overreactions. The female captain at the heart of the government’s case against Brig. Gen. Jeffrey Sinclair admits she carried on a 3-year sexual relationship with her married commander. Adultery is a crime under military law and the admission could end her career. Brig. Gen. Jeffrey A. Sinclair faces possible courts-martial on charges that include forced sex, pornography, violating an order, alcohol use, engaging in inappropriate relationships, misusing a government travel charge card, and conduct unbecoming an officer. † Now so far the Army has ordered all senior officers to go through an intensive conduct, moral and ethical training. For the rest of the force, they have established the SHARP program, well who does it work and what is the SHARP Policy? The new US Army Sexual Harassment and Assault Response and Prevention (SHARP) program, written in Oct. 2011, states, â€Å"Army’s historical perspective shows that a reactive strategy that focuses on victim behavior is not effective in reducing sexual violence for the long term when addressing the problem of sexual harassment and assault in the military. † The Army Sexual Harassment and Assault Response and Prevention Program integrate the Sexual Assault Prevention and Response mission with the military and civilian Prevention of Sexual Harassment mission, which were formerly administered by the Army’s Equal Opportunity and Equal Employment Opportunity programs. The purpose of the SHARP prevention campaign is to achieve cultural change and to improve individual and unit readiness. There are four phases of the SHARP campaign strategy – (SHARP Program). The SHARP Program campaign strategy has been broken down into four phases; the first phase is to have the committed leadership, phase two is to have an Army wide conviction, phase three is to achieve cultural changes and the fourth phase is to work the goals and applications through sustainment, refinement and sharing, — (SHARP Program). How will this work? Every unit will have a SHARP representative at every level to provide this crucial effort, and it will work in the same structure and under the same policies that govern the Equal Opportunity Program. What are the current statistics? What can they tell us? In a recent article in the Fayetteville Observer, Henry cuningham wrote, â€Å"3,191 sexual assaults, ranging from rape to unwanted touching, were reported in the military in 2011. † I also found fascinating reading this article that 8,215 soldiers had committed these sex offenses between 2006 and 2011, 97% of all these violent sex crimes, the victim knew or had been involved with their attacker, 54 % of all Army rapes and aggravated assaults had occur in the barracks, and 95% of all sex crimes victims were women. — (Henry Cuningham) There has not been a lot of research done on the SHARP Program, but there is a profound amount of statistical evidence of this serious issue. My findings show there is data to confirm a statistic and trends since 2006 up to this date. The problem ranges from the lowest ranking soldiers to the highest level in office, so far general officers have been ordered to conduct, moral and ethical training; and the soldiers have been giving the recent SHARP Program. The Army has created this new program, and it is just another program the generals have created to show the nation how they will attack this severe problem of sexual harassment and assault. To me, it is just another way of masking an immense problem, all they have done is recreated the wheel from the current equal opportunity program. I believe there is more work to be done than just giving high ranking officials some small classes, and recreating a new policy that has always been there. While I am still an optimist, I hope that this new SHARP program dramatically reduces this current severe cancer of sexual harassment and assault, and I hope it protects many females and men who are living this appalling situation. I believe in this nation, and I believe in the goodness of all soldiers serving their country. Hopefully this can be reduced and then turn the attention of other important issues like the morale and welfare of the soldiers, their family, and the mission.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Five ways your web writing is annoying your readers - Emphasis

Five ways your web writing is annoying your readers Five ways your web writing is annoying your readers Having a website is a wonderful thing: it allows you to confuse and  frustrate people thousands of miles away without ever having to hear their complaints. This makes it very hard to see what the problems are – and very tempting to pretend that they don’t exist. Your web pages don’t have to be like that. It all comes down to avoiding the five most common web-writing traps. Here’s how. Skip the happy talk Imagine stepping into a lift or elevator and hearing this announcement:  Ã¢â‚¬ËœThank you for entering this building’s lift. We’re pleased you’ve chosen the number one lift provider in this building. To select your desired floor, please use the illuminated buttons.’ Clearly ridiculous – yet a similar thing happens on many web pages:  Ã¢â‚¬ËœThank you for browsing our widgets. We are the market leaders in widgets and are dedicated to producing the best widgets for you. We’ve been making widgets since 1990. To browse our widgets, click on the links below.’ Web usability expert Steve Krug calls this kind of space-filling, meaningless text ‘happy talk’, and recommends a simple test to root it out: read it out loud. If you hear a quiet voice saying in your head ‘blah blah blah’, then it’s happy talk. In this example, the only potentially useful information is ‘To browse our widgets, click on the links below’. But if simple tasks such as browsing your site require instructions, there’s a very good chance that it’s not better phrasing you need, but more intuitive web design. Don’t be afraid of keeping text content to a minimum, if it makes things clearer. An excellent example of this is the site, which won the Design of the Year award in 2013. See the section for drivers as an example. There’s no happy talk or clutter, and all the links are self-explanatory. Answer the golden question Everyone visiting your web pages will have a need. This can range from the highly specific, such as a need to buy a particular product, to a vague need for distraction. You need to work out which of these needs also benefits your organisation, then tailor your website to meet them. This is hard because people can arrive in a bewildering variety of ways. Imagine a large shopping centre with an underground car park, an internal metro station, a bus-stop, a helipad, several pedestrian entrances – and, just for added complication, a few ladders leaning up against windows. Where do you greet the visitors, and how do you establish what they need? Website visitors can come from search engines, social media, reference by a friend, a link from a site, by directly typing the address into their browser after seeing an advert, or just from memory. You have no way of telling where the next one will come from, and no control over which page they see first. This means each page, by itself, needs to answer the golden question of web writing: ‘Am I in the right place?’ Within about five seconds. This is a hard test to pass. Try it for yourself: Get someone who isn’t familiar with your website to look at an important page. Ask them what they think that page is about after a few seconds. There’s a good chance you’ll be surprised by their answer. Go to (the free version is fine for this) and ask some anonymous people from the internet to do the same thing. If this all sounds too painful, try it on the sites of your competitors or similar organisations. You’ll be surprised at how many of them fail. This can be quite satisfying, but bear in mind that your site probably suffers from some of the same problems. People will tend to stay on your site if they think they’re in the right place – just as you’ll keep searching for what you need in a department store if you think you’re likely to find it. However, you’ll need to make sure they can find it reasonably swiftly, as anyone who’s ever stormed off in an empty-handed huff will attest. Be credible If Google is to be believed, the world is crammed full of ‘world leaders’, hundreds of thousands of them, all leading the world in something or other. A Google search for ‘world leader in the field of’ returns more than five million results. Phrases like this give no information and are not by themselves credible. They only take a few key strokes to type and anyone can claim them – and your readers know it. They will filter it out. This applies most obviously to marketing copy, where a handful of testimonials from satisfied people are worth more than anything, however wondrous, the company claims about itself. But it also applies in a more subtle way to non-marketing claims. For example, if you claim you are ‘always there to help’, then back it up by making your contact details easy to find. Make your headlines work The pressure on headlines is staggering, which makes writing them hard. But it doesn’t have to be, if you follow three rules: They must be informative. They’re the first thing the reader scans, and often the only thing they’ll bother to read, so they need to communicate essentially what the page is about. They need to be concise, to the point and short. And they have to be easy to understand for everyone in your target audience. So think twice before using industry-insider terms that a new customer may not understand. When writing a headline, keep in mind the golden question: ‘Am I in the right place?’ Your headline needs to answer that in as plain a way as possible. does well again here – its section covering areas as diverse as apprenticeships, school applications and university loans is summarised as ‘Education and learning’. It’s short, informative and easy to understand. The body copy (also very short) lets people know the detail. KISS with confidence Keeping it Short and Simple is a fundamental part of all professional writing, and it’s particularly important when you’re writing for the web. On the web, you’re always fighting to hold your audience’s attention (and to keep them away from the back button), so the shorter the sweeter. Also, your visitors will have different levels of English comprehension – some may have lower levels of literacy, including those for whom English is not a first language. Keeping it short and simple will help all the visitors to your site by making it easier to use and understand. This in turn increases trust, and helps your visitors achieve their goals quickly and simply. Bob’s your uncle Apply these five rules to your website, and you’ll soon see your communications becoming leaner, cleaner and more efficient. And while you may not be able to see your website visitors’ blood pressure lowering, you’ll soon start to witness the effects. When they realise they’re able to find what they’re looking for on your website quickly and easily, they’ll trust your organisation to be able to meet their needs with the same efficiency. To find out how to optimise your web writing for search engines, see  A beginner’s guide to keyword research.  For tips on how to keep it short and simple, see Three ways to tame your sentences and the  Power up with the active voice  video.

Friday, February 28, 2020

Britishness is defined as having a long history with tradition and Essay - 1

Britishness is defined as having a long history with tradition and culture. Westminster Abbey is designed to define britishness by the architecture and the functions - Essay Example The Westminster Abbey stands out as one of the most-conspicuous architectural masterpieces in Britain that have been designed to symbolize the long history of British culture and tradition. From its design in architecture to its design in the functions that take place within and around its premises, the Westminster Abbey is a classical representation of ‘Britishness.’ The history of Westminster Abbey stretched back to 1065 when King Edward the Confessor built a new church as a dedication to Saint Peter. Following his death, King Edward befitted the first person to be buried at the Abbey and William, the new Conqueror, became the first person to be crowned at the Abbey. In close resemblance to the Canterbury Cathedral, the Abbey became a center for pilgrimage due to the shrines of kings and queens and other important individuals in the society. After many years in the desolation, King Henry III decided to re-build the Abbey in 1245, and the resultant design reflects the Abbey’s current appearance. The history of Westminster Abbey is long and continue to this day. For example the buildings, houses and apartment tell a lot of the historical journey from when it commenced to today. For more than one thousand years, Westminster Abbey has maintained a unique architectural, historical and symbolic significance where the tradition and culture of t he English state, church and monarch and law are inexorably intertwined. As a group, the architectural pieces that form the Abbey symbolize masterpieces of monumental architecture since the medieval times, and which derive from the best of historic construction methods and traditional craftsmanship (Levy 8-12). Thus, it is plausible that the design of the Westminster Abbey was meant to be a constant representation of British culture and tradition for many years after its construction. On the design of its functions, it is the Abbey’s pre-eminent

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Western Imperialism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Western Imperialism - Essay Example Western imperialism is a recurrent theme in much of the historical and anthropological literature.By looking at a map of Africa, we can see a graphic example of how imperialism has affected the evolution of African countries and how the period of the "great empires" has devolved to "spheres of influence" in Africa today (Kindersley).The irony in analyzing imperialistic settling in Africa is that Africa provided the starting point for humanity over 2 million years ago. The great age of colonization from Europe started with the explorations of the Portuguese, shortly followed by the Spaniards, the Dutch, and then the rest of Europe.The English started the slave trade in the well-known "triangle" route between the UK, Africa and the Caribbean, starting in the early 1600's. On the route from the UK to West Africa, the ships' captains transported rum and trinkets, and sometimes firearms. They picked up slaves in West Africa, generally dealing with the coastal tribes who kidnapped or trade d for slaves from the interior of the Continent. The slaves were then transported to the Caribbean, generally to work on sugar plantations. At that point, the ships dropped off slaves and bought rum to transport back to the UK. The French began a similar trade, sourcing slaves for their plantations in the Caribbean.The rest of Africa was largely ignored until the Dutch settlers-the Boers-came to Southern Africa in the late 1700's. They co-settled with the English and engaged in wars against the tough native Zulus, Bantus and other tribes of the southern part of the Continent. The "golden," or "infamous," depending on your viewpoint, age of colonization was the 1800's. During that period, slavery declined but other forms of exploitation thrived. The discovery of gold and diamonds in South Africa and Rhodesia led to a renewed interest by Great Britain in that area. King Leopold of Belgium took over the Congo in the 1860's and ran it as a personal fiefdom for its mineral wealth. France took over what is now called French Africa (centered around the Ivory Coast), while Germany took what was then called Southwest Africa, but is now called Namibia. They also took Zambia. In East Africa, the British took Kenya and Tanganyika (now part of Tanzania), but failed to take the Sudan (Kitchener's famous routing in Khartoum). The French failed to take Madagascar, but took Reunion as an important naval base. They took Algeria, first as a French colony in the 1800's, then as a French "dpartement outre-mer," or non-contiguous state within France itself. The US only had a marginal role, with the 1820's founding of Liberia as a home for freed slaves. The capital of Liberia, Monrovia, was named after President James Monroe. In the early 1900's, the Italians managed to take Ethiopia. Their control was always loose, and generally limited to the Coptic Christian part of the country. During the Mussolini years of the 1920's and 1930's there was a constant low-level war, which resulted in Italy's loss of Ethiopia in the early 1940's as they pulled back their troops to the home country. Imperial rule in Africa varied from one conquering country to another. By far the worst human rights atrocities were committed by Belgium's King Leopold and his successors in the Congo and Rwanda, the two Belgian colonies in Africa. Brutal suppression by mercenaries kept the population down while the land was mined for copper, diamonds and gold. Probably the best (post-slavery) administrators were the French, who inculcated the West African colonies with language, investment and promotion of locals to important government posts. With independence in 1960 and beyond, the European colonists gradually abandoned their colonies. Portugal (Angola), Germany (Namibia) and Belgium (Congo and Rwanda) have the least to do with their former charges. France has retained stronger contacts through the CFA zone (there is